Let us look at, and emulate the patient resolution of the Quakers.
They have conquered without arms - without violence - without threats.
In January 1817, Thomas Jonathan Wooler, a journalist, eastablished a new radical unstamped journal, the Black Dwarf.
When the journal first appeared in January 1817 it was an eight page newspaper but it later became a 32 page pamphlet and cost 4d.
"The means of production of the printed page were sufficiently cheap to mean that neither capital nor advertising revenue gave much advantage; while the successful Radicalism, for the first time, a profession which could maintain its own full-time agitators." (3) was one of the most influential radical journals of the post-war years.
The journal's tone was satiric; its politics were those of radical constitutionalism.
Do this; and the poor will not want your splendid erections for the cultivation of misery and the subjugation of the mind." (9) It is estimated that 18 people were killed and about 500 were wounded during a meeting calling for parliamentary reform on 16th August, 1819.
(10) After the Peterloo Massacre, the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth, sent a letter of congratulations to the Manchester magistrates for the action they had taken.
The main objective of this legislation was the "curbing radical journals and meeting as well as the danger of armed insurrection".
(12) Wooler was arrested for taking part in the campaign to elect Sir Charles Wolseley to represent Birmingham in the House of Commons.
The newspaper gave its support to Cartwright's Hampden Clubs. Thompson that during this period Wooler became one of the main leaders of the reform movement.
Cartwright main objective was to unite middle class moderates with radical members of the working class. (6) Wooler compared these clubs to the work of the Quakers: "Those who condemn clubs either do not understand what they can accomplish, or they wish nothing to be done...
They conquered by union." (7) Thomas Wooler was arrested in early May 1817 and faced two trials for seditious libel for two articles published in the third and tenth numbers of the Black Dwarf.